Artificial intelligence - history

The emergence of the information society should be attributed to the years 1945-46 when the first opportunity in the deciphering of the codes of the Enigma of ballistic calculations, the new technology of information management has demanded increased capacity of computer equipment, and the amount absorbed by the society of information has been increasing at an exponential rate. Developing science - electronics that became the basis of computing devices and mechanical computation has moved to a new platform, first electronic, then the software platform. The science of information became known as computer science and management science of the technical and living - Cybernetics, was continued in the economy and upraleniya enterprises, industries and complexes. Calculation strategies and marketing innovations and innovations in business have demanded from the management efforts that are unable to do without electronic vasculiarnah machines. New science - strategic and innovative management, situational management and Informatics, econometrics, logistics, research of control systems is inconceivable without CTM. The modern financial-economic studies, statistics, accounting, and tax accounting, reporting and forecasting do not oshogatsu without ideologies KTM.

Ideas of engineering and technology has demanded changes in the consciousness of society, scientists and specialistov in control, when you first wanted "to live under communism and do nothing" - to convey responsible in the production of automatic systems (as), then the electronic computing system (EMU) and machine (computer), and then understand that the person responsible for everything, and create CTM - systems and technologies, which are tools of the expert and all their actions responsible person (Manager).

New psychological and sociological studies have become realnostyu in the global Internet, which brings together society and the processes of globalization under a new form of information technology management. New ideas of business management now moved to virtual network technology, business processes management companies without a global network is unthinkable. New KTM require new safety technologies that are not developed in closed institutions and the military of the Pentagon and the Soviet Union.

1957 the launching of Sputnik precipitated the creation of the Internet, which was developed by outstanding people - the founders of information theory, the founders of new ideas in hypertext information processing, new communication, new electronic and software technologies and new means of governance, economy and progress. These people hardly know about them you need to talk about the technologies of governance and new management should be widely and tell obyasni their importance for the survival of society and increase cultural exchange.

Modern society communicates on the basis of "communication" ctwm, which are distributed between state, private and business communications and server platforms. The Internet lives on the basis of the underlying technology of the Unix kernel, enterprise technologies based on core Microsoft Windows. Large KTM have their own commercial platform (Hard) and own software (Soft), which are still inaccessible for the average business. Therefore, semi-commercial network solutions and technologies have taken the bulk of business decisions in the application of information technology management. Informatics has become a major discipline in secondary and higher education.

Informatics - the science of how information processing. Information as knowledge is the common heritage, without which it is impossible to develop education, science, culture and communication, to open new opportunities to manage enterprises. Modern people understand that without knowledge about the ways and methods of access, processing of information is to improve their professional level, improve the economic sector. Specialist-Humanities, without knowledge of Informatics, feels his handicap in the modern world. Informatics was created information space or information environment managed technical facilities and communications, which in turn caused the need to ensure the safety of information processing technologies, standards, programs and technology, adopting international regulations to ensure safety of the information society.

The objectives of many international organizations is to promote development of computer science and information technology. For example, UNESCO, under its Constitution, aims "to promote the free flow of ideas by word and image", i.e., information about humanity. Modern communications are the primary means of communication between peoples, countries and contribute to the development of the global progress of society.

The information explosion has determined all the values of modern society. No one could have imagined 50 years ago what will the information explosion and the prognosis is applied only to the emergence of artificial intelligent machines. The increase in information spawned the creation of new tools for its processing. Knowledge of elements of information technology, which is a combination of hardware and software and communications allow to improve communication between people, develop the economy, education, control society with the help of KTM.

New technologies of doing business online, what has been called the network economy and storage in the network. Managers use the opportunities of the information environment for managing disparate offices and resources. A new direction CTM - e-business became the basis of society. Means KTM machining business information is an essential tool for the modern professional. Office, as part of the business centre has become a virtual education. Email marketing has spawned new types ctvm business. The basis of the electronic ctvm became a "Testament" (12 tenets of e-business) bill gates like guidance for the development of new forms of human communications.

History and some important points of creating a computer for KTM:

1822 the Analytical machine Babbage H had to read information from punched cards, make calculations, and print on paper.
In Russia, created SECM 1951 under the leadership of S. A. Lebedev created in one copy.
Computer Arrow was created in multiple copies.
 Then created the industrial type computers BESM, BESM-6, PS-2000, some Western counterparts of the PDP, IBM-360-370, the computer-electronics.
CRT and the story of their own experience and work in Minsredmasha, academic Institutions, military industry describes the author leego lectures KTM.

Milestones of computers:

 The first electronic computer was designed and patented in new York on 8 Jan 1889 by Hermann Gallerycom. Machine created for the census Bureau in the form of existing electrical tabulator and used for counting in the census in 1890. Information was transferred to punch cards, which are gone in just 10-15 years ago.
 Reports were printed on paper tape. In 1896, G., Hollerith founded the Tabulation Machine Corporation and engaged in the sale of equipment. The Corporation eventually became IBM. 80 columnar perfekta often called a map of Hollerich and lasted over 100 years.

Milestones in the development of computers. How it started:.

1939 - the basement of the state University of Iowa -the first computer - the ABC. Binary arithmetic, parallel computing, reusable memory, computational function. 750 pounds, 300 data bits.
 John. I Mousli (J. W. Mauchly) created the ENIAC (ENIAC) electronic numerical integrator and computer for example AVS. 1945 school of electrical engineering them. Moore at the University of Pennsylvania under secretshopnet delay calculate artillery tables. 30 units, powerful air cooling, weight 30 tons, 19000 electronic vacuum LPN, 1500 relays and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors and coils, 200 kW of elektroenergii.
Programming the ENIAC required a manual shift electric cables (commutation) and to 1952, have successfully completed many tasks.
 British computer Colossus-1 built by max Newman (Max Newman) for cryptographic analysis and decoding. Analyze 5,000 characters per second. Since 1943, played wajob role for the British Government during world war II, allowing to decipher the German Enigma machine codes.
60-70 - age main-frames.
1971 Intel created the 1st 4-bit 4004 microprocessor consisting of 2000 transistors with a clock frequency of 1 MHz.
1972 - the first 8-bit microprocessor 8008.
1974 - an improved version 8080 is the standard for future mikroprocesoru.
 1975 -Digital Researsh released the first version of the operating system CP/M for 8080, since the standard computer software obespechenie and electronic architecture, i.e., Soft and Hard.
1976 - the Company produces Zilog Z80 - 8080 analog. Created by Apple to -1, but its popularity is low.
1977 - Apple II, Commodore PET, with the technology of the Z80 - ancestors of modern home computers, increased popularity of Apple.

1978 - Intel releases 16-bit 8086 microprocessor and 8087 mathematical coprocessor. Also goes 8088 - 8-bit analog 8086.
 1980 - Motorola releases a 16-bit microprocessor 68000 for Apple and Atari.
1981 - year of birth of the personal computer IBM 8088 with a clock frequency of 4.7 MHz, 64 KB RAM, operating system MS-DOS 1.0 (three file system and services).
1982 Intel released the 80286 microprocessor (150,000 transistors), MS-DOS 1.1 supported double-sided drives with a capacity of 360 KB.

1983 IBM released a personal computer with a hard disk capacity of 10 MB. MS-DOS 2.0 contains a tree structure of files.
 1984 - sold first IBM computer IT processor 80286, 6 MHz, hard disk 20 MB floppy drive 1.2 MB.
1985 MS - DOS 3.2 with support of computer networks.

1986 Intel выпускает32-bit multi-tasking microprocessor, its price: matte screen begins to manufacture computers based on it. Instructions 32-bit is not yet fully used.
1987 MS - DOS 3.3 allows you to work with 3.5 inch drives and hard drives larger than 32 MB.
1988 - IBM released the PS/2 - independent family, which in the future is not popular. Microsoft released with the IBM OS/2 c this multi-tasking environment, as well as MS-DOS 4.0 with graphical user interface.
 1989 - Intel releases the 80486, consisting of 80386 and 80387 coprocessor, embedded controller with CACHE memory. Productivity has increased 2.5 times.
1991 part of MS-DOS 5.0 includes improved shell.
1992 Intel releases i586. Improves IBM OS/2. There is a first working GUI of Windows 3.0.
1993 - Released the working version of MS-DOS 6. On the stage of development appear multimedia system that includes a CD-ROM, sound card, speakers, stnovitsya standard vneshni devices in the computer.
 1994 - the Clock frequency of the processor increased to 100 MHz. Its price: matte screen is the largest supplier of computers. Graphical shell of Windows 3.1 running in MS-DOS developing.
The creation of artificial intelligence "Chip INTA"
1995 - released Windows 95 (Chicago) c 32 bit architecture. IBM sold over 1,000,000 million copies of OS/2 Warp.
1995 - Internet goes from the custody of the Government and universities in the United States and become a public tool. The price of computers fall much. IBM acquires firm Lotus (spreadsheets 1-2-3).
 1995-96 manufacturers make the program compatible with Windows 95, all electronic components are trying to do is compatible with IBM PC/PS/2.
1997 - the clock frequency increases to 200 MHz. Prices on hard drives and memory are reduced, sales are soaring. Standard to become the connection to the Internet.
 1998 - the clock frequency is increased to 500 MHz. The motherboard operates at a frequency of 100 MHz. Prices on computers drop to $ 500. Appears the USB bus. Windows 98 is becoming the standard operating system of most computers. Windows NT to become a network system.
2000 - there is a family of operating systems windows 2000, bearing in its composition the structure of the operating system VAX-VMS-5/5.
2003-appears running Windows XP.
 2004 - appears running Windows 2003 server. A family of operating systems, shells, databases. Support programs victorious March across the globe, displacing a family of Unix.
2005 - global manufacturers expand the range of multi-tasking systems given that the Windows are unable to fill a multitasking and multiuser environment that can share system resources on a network computer systems mnogopoliarnym
 2008 - developed new operating systems and new types of computers based on parallelnyh computing. For systems of robotics developed the external device recognition information, video, sound, perception, and smell. Artificial intelligence technologies are not used.

Today there is a new generation of handheld computers, which embodies the idea of the communication device, the search location, combined with modern technology of computer - embedded devices display videos and movies, memory, connection to the global Internet, hi-Fi, radio, mobile communication, etc., controlled distributed KTM.

The problem of creating artificial intelligence emerged at the dawn of human life, and many scientists tried to create artificial people in many different ways. The dream remained a dream. Only worked as the only technology people management - brainwashing and chemicals.

The flaws of man - a faint memory and the mind, envy and material desires, mental disorders forced the best minds to find a way out. Today it is the only dream - to extend the life of artificial medium for consciousness.

In 1994 was created the program "INTA Chip" technology based on stream processing. This technique allowed immediately on the data line to define the meaning and the language, way and to develop thinking. Technology allows us to think the AI is based on prediction, forecasting of the situation development problems. Was tested a technology of transferring one's consciousness into artificial media.

Hollywood scripts today embody these ideas in movies and TV series. Armed with search resources today are similar technologies.

The program runs in the dialogue mode, respond by text and voice. Had two games in which beat the person predicted on the basis of technology forecasting character. Mindset is also carried out on the basis of foresight of the situation. The program was also trained to recognize such images and situations.

Due to the absence of work on the program was suspended. The country had to assign all traditional and no technology was needed. Just to survive.

In 2009 we created a new technology based on the previous and it was based on the analysis of graphic formats. Practice has shown that analyzing formats is very difficult and requires a transitional driver and resources. The technology was called "arena GUA" - and his analysis was reminiscent of extraterrestrial intelligence. The idea of consciousness based on the recognition and organization of thinking.

But the technology of microprocessors exist in 1971 and today has not changed. Teams are almost the same.

To create the mind on such technologies is very difficult. All "buggy" and routines have their drawbacks, which laid by other programmers, without thinking, used the development of other programmers who could not account for the environment the future use of the program. Together these programs make the operating system unreliable. It showed Vista etc. especially if we impose technology covert monitoring and remote supervision.

Just remember MicroVaX, who has worked for 10 years without crashing and still worked 20, the core of the system are unable to break the virus from simulated MS-DOS. But was replaced by IMB-PC and users and programmers began to cry.

How to create the mind on which media?

At the 2010 conference on nanotechnology proposed a new optical chip computer. To the question once you get it working, the answer is never, because in our country have only been talking.

Therefore, in 2014, created a technology "Electronic brain - Martian", which includes computer technology, electronic development (analog and digital logic electronics) and software, which together eliminate some of the shortcomings of the microprocessors and their add-ons.

The main part of the development of new methods in the theory of statistics, rating analysis, new methods for processing streaming data, developments in set theory, analysis on the basis of transcendental sets and the second gödel's incompleteness theorem, other developments in mathematics and logic.

Inherent understanding of the conscious and thinking self.

The program is under development.